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Tuesday, November 14, 2006

All About Taking Care of Orphaned Kittens

Should I take in an abandoned kitten?

Be certain kittens are really abandoned before you disturb a nest.
A momcat can be harder to spot than the stealth bomber, but just
because she’s not there now doesn’t mean she’s not around. If the
kittens are clean, plump, and sleeping quietly in a heap, odds are
that they’ve got an attentive mom and should be left alone.

Abandoned kittens will be dirty and the nest will be soiled,
and they will cry continuously because they’re hungry.

Ideally, kittens should not be taken from the mother until they are
5 to 6 weeks of age.

However, kittens born to feral mothers should be taken away,
if possible, at about 4 weeks old. At this age, it is easy to
tame them and they have gotten 4 weeks' worth of the precious
antibodies mother's milk provides. As they get older, it gets
increasingly harder to tame them; kittens over the age of 8 weeks
who have had no human contact will probably take months to tame ...
if it can be done at all.

Warmth and First-Aid

If a rescued kitten feels cold, warm it immediately, but gently.
Place it on a heating pad wrapped in towels and on the lowest setting,
or warm a hot water bottle to about 100 degrees (wrapped in a
towel) and place it with the kitten. Many veterinarians have
incubators to warm a chilled kitten.

Do not feed a kitten until it is warm, since it can't properly digest
when cold. It is okay, though, to syringe feed a few drops of 5% sugar
water or to rub a little bit of Karo syrup on the kittens’ lips.

Kittens under 3 weeks can’t control their body temperature. Keep them
on a heating pad, set on low, wrapped in towels (at least 2 layers of
towels-- or one towel folded over-- should cover the pad.

You'll know if it's too hot if the kittens tend to sleep on the edges.
The heating pad should be used until the kittens are about 4-5 weeks
old, or until you notice that they're avoiding it. An alternative that many
fosters prefer is a heat lamp over the kitten nest.

Kittens should be kept in a box or cat carrier in a warm, draft-free place,
completely isolated from other animals. Keep the container covered with
a towel or blanket; a small towel or cloth inside the carrier will also keep
them cozy. Change the bedding of their "nest" daily, since
kittens tend to have accidents! As they get older, they will need
more room to exercise, play, and explore. A spare bathroom is ideal
for this.

It is a very, very, very smart idea to take them immediately to a
veterinarian to be checked for dehydration and general condition.
Bring a stool sample if possible to be tested for worms and parasites.
Young kittens are always at risk for being dehydrated and it can
happen very quickly; a dose of fluids injected under skin is
necessary in this case.

Ask your vet or vet technician to show you how to do it. This will be
convenient if your kitten becomes dehydrated rapidly or in the middle of
the night. Even the most squeamish fosters have mastered this and it's
not as horrible as it sounds. Really.

Many vets will give you a courtesy (free) office visit if you tell them
this is a rescued kitten you are fostering; their staff can give you lots
of advice and supplies along the road as well. Don't skip this step!
You can also contact your local shelter or rescue group and ask
if you can become an official "foster parent" through their
organization as you raise your kitten. Many of these organizations
help cover the cost of necessary medical care as the kitten grows
towards adoptable age.

If you're planning to raise your kitten (s) yourself, the best idea is
to find a "foster" momcat who is still nursing. Your local animal
shelter and rescue organizations will probably be able to help
you with this.

Why is this so crucial? The immunity against disease that mother's
milk provides kittens lasts until they are 6 to 14 weeks old. Kittens
who don't get this immunity (from their mom's antibodies) are at
a huge disadvantage and you might be in for a great deal of
medical care. Local shelters and rescue groups can help you
place the momcat after the kittens are weaned.


Unfortunately, cow’s milk is not nutritious enough for kittens--they will
slowly starve to death on it. If you can't get to a pet store right away,
see our Web page for emergency kitten formulas, we also have some
good info on that page with more care tips for the kitten.

Your first purchase should be a pet nursing kit and kitten formula,
available at pet stores. The nursing kit usually includes a bottle,
several extra nipples, and a cleaning brush. Cut an "X" in the tip
of your first nipple with scissors.

You know that you have made the nipple opening just big enough if, when
the bottle is held upside-down, formula drips slowly from it. Too small
an opening will make kittens work too hard to get their formula, tiring them
out before they've had enough to eat. Too large an opening will force too
much formula into them too fast.

Before each feeding, sterilize the bottles and nipples by boiling them in
water. Formula should be warmed to room temperature. You can
do this by microwaving it in the bottle for no longer than 10 seconds
(never let it boil), or placing the bottle in a bowl of hot water
for a few minutes.

Before each feeding, you should also sterilize your hands with
antibacterial sanitizer or water with a touch of bleach added. It's
a good idea to re-sterilize after you're done with the kittens each
time. This way, the kittens and your own pets will be protected
against one another's germs. An alternative to this is to purchase a
box of latex surgical gloves and use a new pair for each feeding.

Many fosters like to keep a special t-shirt, sweatshirt, or apron in the
room where the kittens are kept, and slip it on before feeding. Some
viruses can live on clothing!

Kitten positioning for feeding is very important; this is where the
crucial surrogate-mom bonding happens. Different people have
different "styles" of bottle-feeding. Kittens are most comfortable
in a position similar to the position they'd be in if they were nursing
from a momcat.

One position is simply to place the kitten on its stomach on a towel
or cloth on which it can cling; it will "knead" its paws on instinct. You
can also sit cross-legged on the floor with the kitten inside your legs,
and let the kitten place its paws on your leg as it nurses. Remember
to keep a towel on your lap for this-- and use a fresh, clean towel each day.

Open the mouth gently with the tip of your finger and slip the nipple in.
Once your kitten gets the hang of it, they will search out the nipple

You will feel a real "vacuum effect" when the kitten gets
into suckle mode.

To keep air from getting into the kitten's stomach, hold the bottle at a
45-degree angle, keeping a light pull on the bottle. The kitten should
be allowed to suck at its own pace.

If a kitten refuses to take the nipple or won't suckle, try rubbing it
vigorously on its forehead or stroking its back. This replicates the activity
of a momcat's cleaning and can effectively stimulate the kitten to nurse.
Sometimes you will hear a "clicking" noise which means the kitten's
nursing instinct is in gear and should be ready for the nipple. Sometimes
a kitten is simply picky; there are two kinds of nipples out there, one
shorter and one longer, so you might have to make sure they don't prefer
one or the other.

Kittens who seem too weak to nurse can often be stimulated by rubbing
some Karo syrup on the lips. If a kitten still refuses to nurse, and this
happens beyond the first few "getting the hang of it" times, it
indicates illness and you must take the kitten to a vet immediately.

Kittens have been known to accidentally suck formula into the lungs;
if this happens, hold the kitten upside down until it stops choking.

A kitten should eat about 8cc's of formula per ounce of body weight per
day; nursing bottles are marked with measurements so it's easy to keep track.
Weigh the kittens daily or every other day to calculate the amount of formula
they need; a kitchen or small postal scale should be used. Kittens under
one week old should be fed every 2 - 3 hours; at two weeks old they
can be fed every 4 - 6 hours; after three weeks old, until they are weaned,
they should be fed every 6 - 8 hours.

Divide their needed daily intake by the number of required daily feedings,
and you'll know how much they should eat each time. Kittens who
are extra weak or recovering from a "crash" may need to eat
more frequently.

Keep in mind that the younger kittens are, the more accustomed they
are to staying "latched onto" a momcat's nipple all the time,
nursing small amounts periodically. If you notice that your kittens
are not eating enough in one feeding, increase the frequency of feedings.

If you're feeding multiple kittens, you'll have better luck with them eating
the required amount if you feed them each several times, taking turns.
Feed the first kitten until it stops nursing, feed the second, etc.
Then go back to the first and repeat this round-robin. Usually after
2 or 3 nursing turns, a kitten has had enough for one feeding.

When a kitten has had enough formula, it will usually get some bubbles
around its mouth and its tummy will be very rounded to give it a real
"Bartlett Pear" shape. After feeding, you should burp the kitten just like
you'd burp a human baby; hold it upright against your shoulder and pat it
on the back. Do not overfeed kittens, since this can cause diarrhea and
a host of other problems. Kittens under four weeks will go happily to
sleep after they're fed and full; older kittens will want some serious
play and cuddle time.

It's natural for kittens to suckle on each other or on your fingers, even
after they're finished eating. This is harmless unless you notice that this
kind of activity is causing irritation to other kittens' fur or skin.

Stimulation and Litter Box Training

By nature, momcats lick the "back end" of their babies to stimulate the
bowels and bladder on a regular basis. If you are the babies' new
momcat, guess who gets this duty! After each feeding, gently rub the
kitten on its low abdomen, as well as the genitals and rectum, with a
cotton ball, cotton pad, or tissues moistened with warm water. Make sure
you rub only enough to get them to eliminate; over stimulation will
irritate the area. Keep an eye out for chafing and lingering dirt.

Kittens should (and almost always will) urinate during each stimulation.
They should defecate at least once a day. One trick is to slowly count
to 60 while you're stimulating a kitten; at that point, you'll know if
they're done or if something's on its way out!

When kittens get to be about four weeks old, they are usually ready
to experience the wonderful world of litter boxes (and you'll be
liberated from stimulation duty!). After each meal, put the kitten
in the box and see what transpires. If they don't get it right away,
try taking its paw and showing it how to scratch in the litter. They'll
catch on before you know it!

Cleaning and Flea Control

After each feeding session, you should also give them a full-body once-
over with a barely damp washcloth, using short strokes like a momcat
would use. This keeps their fur clean, teaches them how to groom,
and gives them the attention and "mothering" they crave.

Kittens will often get very dirty and mucked-up in between cleanings;
it's okay to wash a kitten under a sink faucet, but try to focus only
on the areas where they need it. A simple "butt-bath" will usually do
the trick, but if you must get a kitten wet over more than half of
its body, it's safe to dry kittens over one week old with a hair dryer
set on low and used carefully, avoiding their faces.

You should also check their ears regularly for dirt and, especially
after initial rescue, ear mites. Dirt can be cleaned gently with a cotton
ball or swab; consult your vet if you find the telltale ear mite
"coffee-ground" type dirt.
If you find fleas or flea dirt on kittens of any age, you must get them flea-
free as soon as possible. Young kittens can easily get anemia from flea
infestation and really endanger its life. First, use a flea comb to remove as
much of the dirt and fleas from the fur as you can.

Ask your vet for a flea spray that's okay to use on very young kittens;
always read the warnings on any flea product to confirm at which age it is
safe. Place the kitten on a towel for about 20 minutes; then discard the
towel with the dead and dying fleas that have come from the kitten.

After using a spray, you can give the kitten a bath in gentle or surgical
soap; make sure water temperature is lukewarm so as not to chill the
kitten. Dry the kitten, if old enough, with a blow dryer or you can towel-
dry it, then put it in a carrier and aim the blow dryer
into it to gently dry the kitten with warm, circulating air.

Other skin irritations to look for are ringworm and mange. If a kitten
is scratching excessively and there are bare patches where fur is missing,
isolate the kitten from littermates and consult a vet immediately for treatment.

Weight Gain

Kittens should gain about ½ ounce every day or 4 ounces per week.
Weigh them at the same time every day with a kitchen or small postal scale.
Lack of gain or weight loss beyond 24 hours is cause for alarm and a
visit to the vet. Their bellies should always be rotund-- if you squeeze
them between two fingers and slowly try to bring the fingers
together, you should NOT be able to do it!

You can check to make sure a kitten is properly hydrated by pulling up
the skin at the scruff of the neck. If it bounces back nicely,
hydration is good. If it doesn't bounce back, or goes back down slowly,
they will need at least one dose of subcutaneous (under-the-skin) fluids.


Weaning occurs at about 4 weeks, but keep in mind that some kittens
take a bit longer, especially without a momcat to show them the wonders
of eating solid food. You will know that a kitten is ready for the weaning
process when it is (a) biting its nipple often and forcefully, and (b)
able to lick formula from your finger. The next step is to get the kitten to
lap up formula from a spoon. Once they've mastered that, try putting it
in a flat dish.

At that point, you can mix the kitten formula with baby food (we
recommend Beechnut Chicken Baby Food) into a gruel and try
to get the kittens to lap it up from a dish or a spoon. Eventually,
you can mix dry food with formula, gradually reducing the amount
of formula until they're eating just the food. It is not uncommon for
weight gain to slow and minor, temporary diarrhea to occur during weaning.

(See below for our recommendations on what to feed kitty)

Some kittens grasp the concept right away; others take days. Keep
bottle feeding while weaning to make sure they get enough to eat. Reduce
bottle feeding as their solid-food consumption grows. If you give dry food,
moisten it, because kittens can’t chew dry food
well until about 8 weeks.

Remember that changes in diet can quickly cause diarrhea, so keep an
eye on your kitten's stools. Diarrhea can be life-threatening to a
kitten if left untreated; usually, a dose of one or more types of
antibiotics prescribed by your vet will get them back on track.

Development Milestones

Kittens weigh about 2 to 4 ounces at birth; they should double their body
weight in the first week.

Eyes open at 7-10 days. If eyes seem to be pus-filled or sealed shut, open
and clean with a warm wet cloth and apply Terramycin ointment (sold
at pet stores) until the infection clears up; if it doesn't, consult your vet
as it may be a more serious eye infection.

Eyes will stay blue until they are about 3 to 4 weeks old, but true eye
color won't settle in until the kitten's about 3 months old.

At 2 weeks of age, the ears will start to stand up. At about 3 weeks,
they will try to walk. At 4 weeks, they'll start to play with each other
and develop teeth.

A first dose of roundworm medication should be given at 6 weeks; a
second dose for roundworms, as well as a dose for tapeworms, should
be given at 8 weeks. (Always check with your vet...we don't recommend
worming any cat unless a veterinary checkup is done first)

The first FVRCP (4-in-1) vaccination should be given at 6-8 weeks.
A first FELV (Leukemia) vaccination should be given at 8 weeks.
Consult your veterinarian for schedule of follow-up vaccinations; these
vary with vaccination brands and types.

When the kitten weighs two pounds (usually at 8 - 9 weeks old) and
is healthy, they are old enough to be spayed and neutered. At this
age, they are also old enough to be adopted; if you plan to put your
kittens up for adoption, you must not do this before they are 8
weeks old.

Love and Attention

This part's the easy one. Emotional and physical closeness to you is as
important to a kitten as food and warmth. Pet the kitten often,
letting it snuggle. You'll be surprised how this early cuddle activity
will stay a basic instinct as the cat grows into an adult. We've
found that hand-raised kittens have a much deeper bond to their
owners and are highly loyal, intelligent, and affectionate.

Playing with the kitten with a variety of toys is also important;
this will help them develop motor skills and also help them bond to you.
Exercise will keep their energy up and make them happy, healthy,
and extra-adorable.

Once kittens are about six weeks old and healthy, it's okay to let them
interact with other cats and even dogs.

One Last Thought . . .

All this sounds much harder than it really is. Raising "bottle-babies"
is a labor of love for almost everyone who takes it on. Keep in mind,
though, that it can be a difficult process and some things are beyond
our control. If you "lose" a kitten, you should never blame yourself.

Reprinted from Kitten Rescue, Los Angeles

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